Monday, September 10, 2018

September 10, World Suicide Prevention Day... Full details on suicide

September 10, WORLD SUICIDE PREVENTION DAY

Suicide prevention remains a universal challenge. Every year, suicide is among the top 20 leading causes of death globally for people of all ages.  It is responsible for over 800,000 deaths, which equates to one suicide every 40 seconds.

Every life lost represents someone’s partner, child, parent, friend or colleague. For each suicide approximately 135 people suffer intense grief or are otherwise affected.  This amounts to 108 million people per year who are profoundly impacted by suicidal behaviour. Suicidal behaviour includes suicide, and also encompases suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. For every suicide, 25 people make a suicide attempt and many more have serious thoughts of suicide.

Suicide is the result of a convergence of genetic, psychological, social and cultural and other risk factors, sometimes combined with experiences of trauma and loss. People who take their own lives represent a heterogeneous group, with unique, complex and multifaceted causal influences preceding their final act. Such heterogeneity presents challenges for suicide prevention experts.  These challenges can be overcome by adopting a multilevel and cohesive approach to suicide prevention.

Preventing suicide is often possible and you are a key player in its prevention!  You can make a difference –  as a member of society, as a child, as a parent, as a friend, as a colleague or as a neighbour. There are many things that you can do daily, and also on World Suicide Prevention Day (WSPD), to prevent suicidal behaviour. You can raise awareness about the issue, educate yourself and others about the causes of suicide and warning signs for suicide, show compassion and care for those who are in distress in your community, question the stigma associated with suicide, suicidal behaviour and mental health problems and share your own experiences.

It takes work to prevent suicide. The positive benefits of this work are infinite and sustainable and can have a massive impact.  The work can affect not only those in distress but also their loved ones, those working in the area and also society as a whole. We must endeavour to develop evidence based suicide prevention activities that reach those who are struggling in every part of the world.

Joining together is critical to preventing suicide. Preventing suicide requires the efforts of many. It takes family, friends, co-workers, community members, educators, religious leaders, healthcare professionals, political officials and governments.

Suicide prevention requires integrative strategies that encompass work at the individual, systems and community level. Research suggests that suicide prevention efforts will be much more effective if they span multiple levels and incorporate multiple interventions. This requires the involvement of interventions that occur in communities and involve social and policy reforms, as well as interventions that are delivered directly to individuals. To reach the common goal in preventing suicidal behaviour we as the public, we as organisations, we as legislators and we as members of society must work collaboratively, in a coordinated fashion, using a multidisciplinary approach.

Everyone can make a contribution in preventing suicide. Suicidal behaviour is universal, knows no boundaries so it affects everyone. The millions of people affected each year by suicidal behaviour have exclusive insight and unique voices. Their experiences are  invaluable for informing suicide prevention measures and influencing the provision of supports for suicidal people and those around them. The involvement of people with lived experience of suicide in research, evaluation and intervention should be central to the work of every organisation addressing suicidal behaviour.

 We all have a role to play and together we can collectively address the challenges presented by suicidal behaviour in society today.Do not take your life because your life is much more important to everyone around you.

Written by:  Komolafe RN

http://www.wellnessloaded.com/2018/09/dealing-with-addiction-by-michelle-j.html?m=1

http://www.wellnessloaded.com/2018/09/adjustment-disorder-types-causes-and.html?m=1

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Thursday, September 6, 2018

Dealing with addiction by Michelle J. New, PhD

Defining an addiction is tricky, and knowing how to handle one is even harder.
What Are Substance Abuse and Addiction?


The difference between substance abuse and addiction is very slight. Substance abuse means using an illegal substance or using a legal substance in the wrong way. Addiction begins as abuse, or using a substance like marijuana or cocaine.
You can abuse a drug (or alcohol ) without having an addiction. For example, just because Sara smoked pot a few times doesn't mean that she has an addiction, but it does mean that she's abusing a drug — and that could lead to an addiction.
People can get addicted to all sorts of substances. When we think of addiction, we usually think of alcohol or illegal drugs. But people become addicted to medications, cigarettes, even glue!
And some substances are more addictive than others: Drugs like crack or heroin are so addictive that they might only be used once or twice before the user loses control.
Addiction means a person has no control over whether he or she uses a drug or drinks. Someone who's addicted to cocaine has grown so used to the drug that he or she has to have it. Addiction can be physical, psychological, or both.
Physical Addiction
Being physically addicted means a person's body actually becomes dependent on a particular substance (even smoking is physically addictive). It also means building
tolerance to that substance, so that a person needs a larger dose than ever before to get the same effects.
Someone who is physically addicted and stops using a substance like drugs, alcohol, or cigarettes may experience withdrawal symptoms. Common symptoms of withdrawal are diarrhea, shaking, and generally feeling awful.

Psychological Addiction
Psychological addiction happens when the cravings for a drug are psychological or emotional. People who are psychologically addicted feel overcome by the desire to have a drug. They may lie or steal to get it.
A person crosses the line between abuse and addiction when he or she is no longer trying the drug to have fun or get high, but has come to depend on it. His or her whole life centers around the need for the drug. An addicted person — whether it's a physical or psychological addiction or both — no longer feels like there is a choice in taking a substance.

Signs of Addiction
The most obvious sign of an addiction is the need to have a particular drug or substance. However, many other signs can suggest a possible addiction, such as changes in mood or weight loss or gain. (These also are signs of other conditions too, though, such as
depression or eating disorders.)
Signs that you or someone you know may have a drug or alcohol addiction include:
Psychological signals:
use of drugs or alcohol as a way to forget problems or to relax
withdrawal or keeping secrets from family and friends
loss of interest in activities that used to be important
problems with schoolwork, such as slipping grades or absences
changes in friendships, such as hanging out only with friends who use drugs
spending a lot of time figuring out how to get drugs
stealing or selling belongings to be able to afford drugs
failed attempts to stop taking drugs or drinking
anxiety, anger, or depression
mood swings
Physical signals:
changes in sleeping habits
feeling shaky or sick when trying to stop
needing to take more of the substance to get the same effect
changes in eating habits, including weight loss or gain


Getting Help
If you think that you or someone you care about is addicted to drugs or alcohol, recognizing the problem is the first step in getting help.
Many people think they can kick the problem on their own, but that rarely works. Find someone you trust to talk to. It may help to talk to a friend or someone your own age at first, but a supportive and understanding adult is your best option for getting help. If you can't talk to your parents, you might want to approach a school counselor, relative, doctor, favorite teacher, or religious leader.
Unfortunately, overcoming addiction is not easy. Quitting drugs or drinking is probably going to be one of the hardest things you or your friend have ever done. It's not a sign of weakness if you need professional help from a trained drug counselor or therapist. Most people who try to kick a drug or alcohol problem need professional assistance or a treatment program to do so.
Tips for Recovery
Once you start a treatment program, try these tips to make the road to recovery less bumpy:
Tell your friends about your decision to stop using drugs. Your true friends will respect your decision. This might mean that you need to find a new group of friends who will be 100% supportive. Unless everyone decides to kick their drug habit at once, you probably won't be able to hang out with the friends you did drugs with.
Ask your friends or family to be available when you need them. You might need to call someone in the middle of the night just to talk. If you're going through a tough time, don't try to handle things on your own — accept the help your family and friends offer.
Accept invitations only to events that you know won't involve drugs or alcohol. Going to the movies is probably safe, but you may want to skip a Friday night party until you're feeling more secure. Plan activities that don't involve drugs. Go to the movies, try bowling, or take an art class with a friend.
Have a plan about what you'll do if you find yourself in a place with drugs or alcohol. The temptation will be there sometimes, but if you know how you're going to handle it, you'll be OK. Establish a plan with your parents, siblings, or other supportive friends and adults so that if you call home using a code, they'll know that your call is a signal you need a ride out of there.
Remind yourself that having an addiction doesn't make a person bad or weak. If you fall back into old patterns (backslide) a bit, talk to an adult as soon as possible. There's nothing to be ashamed about, but it's important to get help soon so that all of the hard work you put into your recovery is not lost.
If you're worried about a friend who has an addiction, you can use these tips to help him or her. For example, let your friend know that you are available to talk or offer your support. If you notice a friend backsliding, talk about it openly and ask what you can do to help.
If your friend is going back to drugs or drinking and won't accept your help, don't be afraid to talk to a nonthreatening, understanding adult, like your parent or school counselor. It may seem like you're ratting your friend out, but it's the best support you can offer.
Above all, offer a friend who's battling an addiction lots of encouragement and praise. It may seem corny, but hearing that you care is just the kind of motivation your friend needs.
Staying Clean
Recovering from a drug or alcohol addiction doesn't end with a 6-week treatment program. It's a lifelong process. Many people find that joining a support group can help them stay clean. There are support groups specifically for teens and younger people. You'll meet people who have gone through the same experiences you have, and you'll be able to participate in real-life discussions about drugs that you won't hear in your school's health class.
Many people find that helping others is also the best way to help themselves. Your understanding of how difficult the recovery process can be will help you to support others — both teens and adults — who are battling an addiction.
If you do have a relapse, recognizing the problem as soon as possible is critical. Get help right away so that you don't undo all the hard work you put into your initial recovery. And, if you do have a relapse, don't ever be afraid to ask for help!

http://www.wellnessloaded.com/2018/09/adjustment-disorder-types-causes-and.html?m=1

http://www.wellnessloaded.com/2018/09/coping-skills-for-adjustment-disorder.html?m=1


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Monday, September 3, 2018

Coping skills for adjustment disorder

Adjustment disorder is defined by emotions and behaviours related to a nerve-racking incident that lead to problems in school, work, and relationships. Viewed as a temporary state typically lasting treatment is concentrated upon making a transition in a productive way or helping a man deal with the stressful situation. Psychotherapy is the selection of treatment for this illness, with an emphasis on scenario or the occasion, its impact upon his or her life, and the individual can proceed from the effects the occasion had.

Treatment Alternatives
Psychotherapy was discovered to have favorable consequences for treating adjustment disorder. As the nature of adjustment disorder is short-term, it isn't as disabling as other illnesses, and treatment of adjustment disorder typically has a favorable result.
The Treatment Procedure
The treatment procedure entails:
  • A span of evaluation
  • Selecting a course of treatment that can help meet treatment targets
  • Evaluation to ensure there's a difference in ideas, feelings, and behaviours after treatment
  • Psychotherapy treatments for adjustment disorder focus upon target-oriented tasks and psychoeducation about potential factors behind anxiety, developing new coping strategies, and reframing trying scenarios.
Drugs are sometimes used to treat facets of the illness that reflect other symptoms of other illnesses. Self- strategies that are helping should be contemplated and in many cases are overlooked.
Psychotherapy
Short-term psychotherapy strategies are generally used for most instances of adjustment disorder. There are numerous kinds of treatments used to cure adjustment disorder whereas treatment for adjustment disorder hasn't been extensively examined.
Mirror Treatment:
Patients are sitting in front of a mirror and they are asked to explore the picture in the mirror. Approval of oneself as a whole individual is supported.
Activating Treatment:
This is a kind of cognitive behavioral therapy that targets performing a selection of actions to develop managing mechanisms. This treatment was successful for individuals experiencing long term joblessness. A Biopsychosocial Foundation for Practice described a variety of kinds of interventions.
BICEPS stands for " conciseness, spontaneity, concentration, expectation, closeness, and ease." Known as a "first aid" use for emotions, it's used to focus upon the problem and step up with alternatives that can work right away so the individual can resume the usual life after a stressful occasion. It helps the individual learn the dealing mechanisms that can be used to bring the customer relief with immediacy.
Psychotherapy: Psychotherapy continues to be the top pick for treating adjustment disorder. Examples of psychotherapies comprise short term treatments, including Brief Dynamic Therapy, and Supporting Treatment. Brief Dynamic Therapy helps individuals identify what feelings, ideas, and behaviours are bringing to their current problems in coping with their current situation.
This has been discovered to help individuals with depressive symptoms with adjustment disorder. Supporting Treatment concentrates on helping individuals rationale through their ideas and emotions to get back control in their own lives.
Supporting Treatment focuses upon developing the skills needed to adjust and make do with the scenario, reducing symptoms, and working out feelings about the stressful situation or occasion. Previous impressions and ideas related to a stressful occasion, based on the principles of EMDR, cause mental chaos. Drugs Using drugs for treating adjustment disorder should be done with caution.
Benzodiazepines are sometimes used to relieve sleeplessness and stress related to stress-associated adjustment disorder. These should be used with caution, particularly where addiction to other materials are an issue. A trial using buspirone and etifoxine to treat adjustment disorder with stress were demonstrated to be successful.
Some herbal treatments were demonstrated to be successful in treating stress in adjustment disorder. The course of drugs typically lasts several weeks. Using your social support system can be quite helpful in relieving anxiety. Group support and societal support are viewed as self-help action plan one can use to relieve symptoms of adjustment disorder and in many cases are used in combination with psychotherapy. For example, if a man has adjustment disorder, the individual can find group therapy that's targeted for individuals that are recently divorced helpful.
Get Help
Treatment results are quite favorable; getting help when possible can help you recuperate from the nerve-racking occasion earlier as opposed to later.

Culled from: adjustmentdisorders.org
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Sunday, September 2, 2018

Adjustment Disorder (Types, Causes and symptoms).

Written by Aladeyelu Tunji (RN, RPN)

Human experiences numerous stressors such as environmental stressors, daily life event stressors and so on, the ability to maintain balance irrespective of the presence of stress denote good adjustment. However, if an individual cannot maintain balance or cannot cope with a particular stress or major life event then adjustment disorder set in.

Adjustment disorder is also called situational depression because people with adjustment disorder do have symptoms of depression such as hopelessness, withdrawal to self, anhedonia, and so on.
People with adjustment disorder usually feel better once they are able to adjust to the situation.

Types

Adjustment disorder with depressed mood.
Adjustment disorder with anxiety.
Adjustment disorder with mixed.
Adjustment disorder with disturbance of conduct.
Adjustment disorder with mixed disorder of conduct and disturbance of emotions.
Adjustment disorder unspecified.

Signs and symptoms


Feeling of hopelessness
Crying
Withdrawal to self
Loss of interest
Loss of self esteem
Anxiety

Causes

Death of loved ones
Divorce
General life changes
Chronic illnesses such as cancer
Road traffic accident
Family problems
School issues
Sexuality issues and so on.

http://www.wellnessloaded.com/2018/08/stress-and-mental-health.html?m=1

http://www.wellnessloaded.com/2018/08/mental-health-myths.html?m=1

Coping measures will be published soon. Stay connected


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Thursday, August 30, 2018

Frequently asked questions about menstruation

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about Menstruation.

*FAQ 1*

*Why do I feel so much Pain while  menstruating?*

This pain that is felt during menstruation is also known as *cramps* and it mostly occurs at the lower part of  the belly, the pain sometimes radiates to the back and part of  the thighs.

This pain can occur before or during menstruation and the intensity differs in people.

Pain felt during menstruation is medically known as *Dysmenorrhea*

👉 As I have explained in my previous post, approximately once every 28 days, if there is no sperm to fertilize the egg, the uterus contracts to expel its lining.

Hormone-like substances called prostaglandins trigger this process.

Prostaglandins are chemicals that form in the lining of the uterus during menstruation.

They cause muscle contractions and cramps that are similar to labor pains.

They can also contribute to other symptoms felt such as nausea, headache, irritability, diarrhea, some people even have fainting spells and their activities are grossly distorted.

Some other conditions aggravate this pain...
They include:

-Endometriosis (a condition in which the tissue that lines the uterus grows outside it).

- Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases (this is an infection of the reproductive tract).

- Fibroid (these are masses that grow within or outside the uterus).

- Others Cysts that could be present in the reproductive tract.

If the Menstrual pain is caused by an underlying medical condition it is referred to as a *Secondary Dysmenorrhea* if not it is called a *Primary Dysmenorrhea*

*The Treatment of Dysmenorrhea*_(I bet you now know that I mean painful menstruation 😊)_

For secondary dysmenorrhea, the  remedy is to get rid of the underlying cause.
 Although all dysmenorrheas can be reduced temporarily by taking pain killers.

Others things that could  be done to relieve the pain in primary dysmenorrhea include:

~ Exercise (usually before the period starts)
~ Apply a heat pad to the lower abdomen
~ Massage the lower abdomen and  probably the back too
~ A good diet also helps too (increase your fruit and vegetable intake).

Note:
To prevent primary dysmenorrhea these are important;

- Reduction of Stress (stress has been seen to contribute to dysmenorrhea, including emotional stress)

- Avoid smoking and alcohol intake (research also has it that it contributes to dysmenorrhea)

- Reduce excess weight

- Eat a nutritious diet to maintain the body all together.

*FAQ 2*

*Does intake of sugar or sugary products before or during menstruation increase Menstrual pain?*

Well... To an extent excess intake of sugar may have an effect on menstrual although I must tell you that they are not the cause, I've explained what causes the cramps above.
During menstruation the body sugar level is quite raised because these prostaglandins are sugar based and taking in processed sugar is like increasing the effect that they produce which is cramps.
Apart from this sugar
There are other foods that could have effects on cramps apart from sugar they include:

- Salty foods (they increase water retention and may increase the bloaty feeling)

- Coffee/caffeine (caffeine constricts blood vessels thus increasing cramps)

- Fatty foods/meats (these are usually high in saturated fats, which contains arachidonic acid that produces prostaglandins which can cause uterine contractions, cramping and bloating).

- Processed foods/junks (they also contain bad fats that contribute to cramps).

_So you see that it's not only about sugar, it's also about maintaining a good diet in total_

I will still address more questions in subsequent posts.

I hope you have learnt something different today.

Stay tuned for more.

Feel free to make your comments and share the post, I really do appreciate them.

You can check out other interesting posts at wellnessloaded.com.

Take charge of your health and consciously stay healthy.

 Olawunmi (RN)