Saturday, July 28, 2018

A to Z of hepatitis A, B, C, D and E (Happy world hepatitis day)


Hepatitis simply mean inflammation of the liver tissues, it has no symptoms in some people while some people develop severe symptoms.
In 2012, a Guinness World Record was created when 12,588 persons from 20 countries did the Three Wise Monkeys actions on World Hepatitis Day to signify the willful ignorance of the disease and July 28 of every year was set aside to observe world Hepatitis Day. The aim is to raise the global awareness of hepatitis. It has been noted that close to 1.4million people die of hepatitis every year.

The 5  major types are hepatitis A,B,C,D and E.

Hepatitis A

Previous names
Infectious hepatitis

Cause
Hepatitis A virus (HAV)

Mode of  transmission
Fecal–oral route; poor sanitation. Person-to-person contact. Waterborne;foodborne. Transmission possible with oral–anal contact during sex.

Incubation (days) immunity
15–50 days Average: 30 days Homologous

Signs and Symptoms
Outcome May occur with or withoutsymptoms;  flulike illness Preicteric phase Headache, malaise, fatigue, anorexia,fever rIcteric phase: Dark urine, jaundice ofscler and skin,tender liver

Outcome
Usually mild withrecovery. Fatality rate: 1%. No carrier state or increased risk ofchronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, or hepatic cancer.


Hepatitis B
Previous name
Serum hepatitis

Cause
Hepatitis B virus (HBV)

Mode of transmission
Parenterally; by intimate contact with carriers or those with acute disease; sexual and oral–oral contact. Perinatal transmission from mothers to infants. An
important occupational hazard for health care personnel.

Incubation (days) immunity
28–160 days Average: 70–80 days Homologou.

Signs and symptoms
May occur without symptoms May develop arthralgias, rash

Outcome
May be severe. Fatality rate: 1–10%. Carrier state possible Increased risk ofchronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatic cancer.


Hepatitis C
Non-A, non-B hepatitis

Cause
Hepatitis C virus (HCV)

Mode of transmission
Transfusion of blood and blood products; exposure to contaminated blood through equipment or drug paraphernalia. Transmission possible with sex with infected partner; risk increased with STD.
Incubation (days) immunity
15–160 days Average: 50 days Second attack may indicate weak immunity or infection with another agent.

Signs and symptoms
Similar to HBV; less severe and anicteric

Outcome
Frequent occurrenceof chronic carrier state and chronic liver disease.
Increased risk of hepatic cancer.

Hepatitis D
Causes
Hepatitis D virus (HDV)

Mode of transmission
Same as HBV. HBV surface antigen necessary for replication;  pattern similar to that of hepatitis B.

Incubation (days) immunity
21–140 days Average: 35 days Homologous

Signs and symptoms
Similar to HBV

Outcome
Similar to HBV but greater likelihood of carrier state, chronic active hepatitis, and cirrhosis


Hepatitis E
Cause
Hepatitis E virus (HEV)

Mode of transmission
Fecal–oral route; person to person contact may be possible, although risk appears low

Incubation (days) immunity
15–65 days Average: 42 days Unknown

Signs and symptoms
Similar to HAV. Very severe in pregnant women.

Outcome
Similar to HAV except very severe in pregnant women

From all of us at wellnessloaded we say happy world hepatitis day.


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